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Environmental Protection

Some Influential Laws on Environmental Protection

Some Influential Laws on Environmental Protection

The Clean Water Act, is an example of a well-known and prominent environmental law. The Clean Water Act assures the quality of our water supply, and additionally preventing the tampering with, or pollution and contamination of it. 
The contamination can include individuals dumping chemicals into the water, as well as certain structures of a property that can contribute to the pollution of a nearby water source. Depending on the severity of the infraction, strict fines can be imposed on people or businesses for their contamination of a water supply.
Another common environmental protection law is the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act. The CERCLA, which is enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency, was passed in 1980 and deals with problems relating to closed or abandoned hazardous waste properties/sites. This act directly can impose a liability on different parties coming into contact with hazardous waste and their dealing of it. These parties can be companies that deal with the production of hazardous waste, to people who transport, or dispose of it. 
As a result of their direct contact with the waste during any given phase of its existence, these are the people who can be held responsible in case of a spill or improper disposal or use of the waste. If a person or group of persons is found liable for any of these actions with hazardous waste they will face serious implications. These can include heavy fines, as well as lawsuits from any possible people that were harmed in result of their actions.
Also, the person(s) will be responsible for the proper cleanup of the mishap or site, whether through their own means, if fitting under EPA standards, or by hiring an outside company specializing in that type of cleanup. Those held liable will be responsible for the entire cost of the cleanup and safe removal/disposal of the hazardous waste.
Aside from federal laws, there are state laws that regulate certain types of products that may come in contact with the environment as well. For example, certain state laws oversee the use of underground storage tanks containing petroleum or petroleum products. 
These laws state a specific type of storage type that must be used, and what components it can be made of to store such liquids. Should an unfortunate leak happen with the tank, these state laws bring forth liability to the owner of that tank. Leaks can contaminate the soil on the property as well as ground water, and through rainfall, can travel to other areas spreading the contamination. Those held liable,  aside from suffering a great deal of penalties, will also be responsible for the proper cleanup of such sites. 
On a residential level, there is a concern for home owners purchasing houses that contain lead-based or radon-based paints. If directly contacted, these are both potentially harmful substances to a person’s health. This is why a home owner is told to report the levels of such contaminants in the house prior to sale.
The laws that are set by the government (both federal and local) are meant to not only protect the environment, but also the health of people in and around the areas prone to contamination. Environmental protection laws are focused on creating a safer existing environment for everyone, as well as cleaning up areas that were harmed in the past.

What are the Benefits of Property Easement?

What are the Benefits of Property Easement?

The benefits of a property easement lie within the holder of an easement, and their use or access over a property. In appurtenant easements, the dominant tenement holds the benefit over the servient tenement over the use of their land. This can pertain to an access or need to cross over to their property with or without a structure being built.
The dominant tenement also benefits from the easement, even if ownership of the property is transferred to a new owner. The new owner would automatically receive the easement for that property without legal implications, or due notification. This privilege is not shared by the owner of the servient tenement, which is where the easement is located. A situation that would help understand this concept is thinking of it as a property owner (X) who has land behind their house after their lot ends, and prior to a different owner’s lot beginning, or a wall, structure, forest, lake, etc….
The owner of that vacant land decides to sell it to a person looking to build a home in the lot within it’s boundaries, and of course following by all zoning guidelines through the municipality(after approvals of course). Once the home is built, the owner (Y) will need a means of accessing the roadway with a vehicle. The way the person would go about this, is by requesting the creation of an easement for his or her access to the public street through the property of a different owner (owner ‘A’ as mentioned before).Once the easement is granted, then a driveway can perhaps be built through the property of the owner (X).
This will grant the owner of the concealed property (Y) full access to the road using a vehicle, as well as to their own property and home. The benefit of such types of easements are clearly visible to the dominant tenement, the servient tenement simply has the easement located on their property (without such benefit). In the case of implied easements, had the property owner (x) owned the property lot behind his home and sold it to the new owner (Y), then in this case the new owner may not even have to file for an easement to be created.
In such case, the owner of both properties (X) has knowingly sold a property that was clearly blocked by his property in relation to road access. This creates an implied easement, stating that it in a way it is obvious that the owner of the new property will most certainly need an easement to enter and exit their property. With this type of easement, the new owner would benefit from the implied easement, through which the easement would lie on the original owner’s second property (closest to the roadway).
These examples are meant to outline the favorable attributes that an easement can grant a property owner, over the use of the land they are entitled to through it. In some cases, such as that of easements in gross, there is no beneficiary because the easement deals with things such as power, and water, giving the access to utility company.

Saving the World With Environmental Protection

Saving the World With Environmental Protection

Due to the growing concern over the environment in recent years, environmental protection laws have been created to protect the varying ecosystems of the United States. These laws were set to promote a better environment for tomorrow’s generations, by the people of today. It is with the prevention of harmful activities and pollution to our environment that we can secure a safe and bright future for our children, and their children as well. 
Some of the laws set for environment protection can deal with the overall construction of new property and where it can and cannot take place. For example, in an area limited with forests, there may be laws preventing developers from building a condominium complex where there is a significant amount of woodlands. This is due to the scarcity of forest area as well as to promote a “green” zone for that area with a valuable source of plant life for the residents and the atmosphere. 
There are environmental protection laws that prevent people from building onto endangered property. One of these examples is the laws protecting the preservation of the wetland areas. This is in direct relation to the benefit the wetlands provide to wildlife as well as to our air and overall environment. Keeping the number of existing wetlands high will benefit all organisms of the broader environment. As a result of their nonexistence, in the past, people disregarded such things as environmental protection laws. 
Thanks to organizations such as the Environmental Protection Agency, we can credit the awareness given to the general public today. Along with other agencies and organizations, the EPA can enforce their laws and oversee certain tasks permitted on specific grounds or near them to assure that there is no harm done to the area they intend to protect.
The EPA also has taken a step further into the protection of the environment by setting regulations to commercial properties that deal with fuels and harmful substances and their containment and disposal. This can relate to auto mechanic shops, gas stations, certain factories, etc.. Some of these places have storage tanks underground that can be vulnerable to decay over time-that is why only specific tanks can be used that are made up of the components stated in the clear environmental protection laws. 
The laws also prevent such liquids from being disposed of into the ground, or water sources and contaminating them. In essence, dumping into the ground can contaminate ground water that can travel to water sources as well. The EPA is extremely strict with these regulations, and will provide the necessary sanctions and penalties to anyone that comes in violation of such regulations and standards. The environmental protection laws do not only relate to commercial property, but also to residential land. 
Along with the disposal of particular products, these laws may regulate the use of certain paints on a home or items outside of a home. It is wise to become acquainted with laws designed to promote environment protection, and to follow them accordingly.
For a long period of time, people have neglected the environment and gone about their business carefree, some not realizing the potential damage they could have on the ecosystems. The EPA decided it was time to enforce such rules and regulations by setting environmental protection laws to take care of our environment. These laws have helped to improve the quality of the environment today, and for the future to come.

The Fast Facts on Easements

The Fast Facts on Easements

Easements are known as the use of a private property by a person or organization for a specific reason or intent. Easements may deal with the granted right of one property owner to travel over the property of a neighbor to access certain areas. They can also empower a certain company or organization to utilize private land to provide a specific service, or complete a task. Depending on the type of assessment, an easement can either benefit one party over the other, or neither parties. 
Two types exist and are known as an easement in gross, and an appurtenant easement. Easements can be created in various ways, such as being granted by one property owner to another, being implied by an action, prescribed, or necessary for the full use and enjoyment of property. The regulations for each easement varies, and they can last until otherwise specified. Some are permanent until a certain requirement is meant to terminate them. 
Background
An easement grants the use of a private piece of land belonging to an owner, by another person or organization for a specific purpose or need. The access can deal with travel over the property, as well as placing certain structural components on the property, and even allowing for construction above and below ground of utilities. Easements fall into two distinctive categories known as appurtenant easements, and easements in gross. 
Appurtenant easements benefit the holder of the easement over the owner of the property where the easement is located. They deal with a servient tenement (location) and a dominant tenement (holder of easement).  Appurtenant easements deal with a benefiting land owner over another, where the easement is located. The owner benefits over the use of such property, and the easement over that property. Easements in gross deal with an easement with no beneficiary, this can be in the case of a utility company using the property for power lines, water/sewer mains, or gas pipes.

Benefits

An easement usually benefit’s the holder, and their use or access over a property. For example, in an appurtenant easement, the dominant tenement, or estate, would be the beneficiary over the servient tenement. This is due to the fact that the dominant tenement would have the ability and right to use the property over the servient in a manner that serves a purpose or function that is specific. This could be an access route to a roadway, or a passageway to their property. 
When dealing with an easement in gross, there is no beneficiary because the easement is granted to a company, usually a utility company, and the use would be simply to provide services to the areas required. However, sometimes when a government or municipality calls for an easement of property to perhaps build a recreation center, etc.. one could argue that the community would benefit from such a place. Regardless, once again there is no benefiting party involved in the terms of the easement. Simply, the only thing that exists is the purpose of the easement for the use of the property.
Appurtenant Easements
Appurtenant easements, like any easement, deal with the use of a private property by another entity. In this case, it’s another private owner. An appurtenant easement deals with  one private property owner using the land of another private property owner for a specific purpose that allows them to get full use of their property and enjoy it’s benefits. 
The owner in an appurtenant easement, of the land where the easement will be located, is referred to as the servient tenement, he or she is the grantor of the easement. The grantee, who is the private owner that will be holding the easement, and using the land of the grantor, is the dominant tenement. In an appurtenant easement, should the dominant tenement choose to sell his or her land, the easement would automatically transfer over to the new owner so that they can use it and be entitled to full use of their property.
Easements in Gross

One easement that does not benefit a party over the other is known as an easement in gross. The most common of these, deals with utility companies looking to provide some sort of service to a community. They may require an easement over a private property to install power lines, or to extend the coverage area of their existing system. 
This deals with them perhaps using a grassy or wooded area behind a residential dwelling, or next to a commercial property such a as a building. These structures may be unsightly, as well as affect the property values in which they are located. However, since they area essential to a specific need, these easements will mainly be granted. They can sometimes be dealt with underground structures, in the cases of utility companies accessing water/sewer mains, or even gas pipes.
When a use of a private piece of land is necessary for a special purpose, by another entity, be it another land owner or perhaps a company or organization, an easement can be created. Easements can be created or granted through a few different ways, these are: express grant, implication, prescription, and necessity. The purpose of each easement may or may not solely benefit the owner of the easement, but could be necessary for a specific mandated function. In general, an easement could be created with the consent of the owner, which would entail an express grant. 
There could also be a significant implication for the requirement of an easement to exercise the entire use and enjoyment of a property by its owner, an implied easement. The use of the land without the permission or consent of the owner can lead to the creation of a prescriptive easement, as long as the use is not halted or aborted. The need for an access of a public street can also constitute an easement, due to the essential necessity of the owner to access a public roadway to exit and enter their property.

A Guide to Appurtenant Easements

A Guide to Appurtenant Easements

Appurtenant easements are easements that benefit a piece of land and its respective owner (when compared to a contrasting owner’s piece of land.) These easements are attached to the real property and can be transferred if a sale of the land occurs. The major reason behind most appurtenant easements has to do with the “right of way” easement, and granting the passageway through a property. 
First, in regards to appurtenant easements, they must be agreed to by both land owners before proceeding in creating one. If the owner of the land where the easement would lie denies the stipulations, the matter can be resolved in court-usually with a lawsuit from the person attempting to request that the easement be created. The owner of land looking to create the easement is known as the dominant tenement, and the owner who’s land the easement would lie on, is known as the servient tenement. In this case, the dominant tenement is the beneficiary in the matter. 
The servient simply is providing the other tenement the right to use his/her land whether amicably or forcibly, and must allow the easement to be built on their property. When the dominant tenement has no choice but to create an easement, such as an example if their property was landlocked, and needed access to a road, this would be known as a specific easement or easement by necessity. Also, if the dominant tenement chooses to sell their property to another owner, then the easement would be attached with the sale, as mentioned before. However, the same rules do not apply for a servient tenement (depending on circumstances.) 
Certain circumstances could lead the new servient tenement to argue the existence of the easement (if applicable), if the reason in this case has become irrelevant with time or purpose. Having an easement on a property as a servient tenement, can hurt their chances of reselling the property. Not only that, but it can severely diminish the property value. This is because, new owners, who would look to develop a property or build a new structure, are severely limited by their contractual obligations.
Appurtenant easements can also exist between commercial property owners and residential property owners. For instance, a shopping center has a private road standing between their location and a main road. The company wants to have access for its customers to that road, which would constitute the introduction of an easement. Once this easement is created, the dominant tenement would be the shopping center. This would in turn, entitle the benefit of the easement to the shopping center.